ASPAR-RIGGING can offer our clients with service and installation of:
Other than that, our experienced field team can also provide the following services:
We recommend regular annual visual checks of mast, standing and running rigging, and deck equipment to ensure a smooth sailing throughout the seasons. If needed and agreed, a written report with photos will be provided, together with a quotation for necessary repairs or services. It is advisable to schedule your check in advance to be able to carry out the work during winter and have enough time to prepare the boat for the upcoming season.
For information on recommended service intervals, you can check our detailed manuals for wire, rod and fiber rigging.
Stainless steel wire is a flexible and robust form of rigging with many different applications and termination solutions. Whether your yacht uses 1x19 stainless or Dyform wire witheither swage or swageless fittings, inspection procedures at regular intervals are still critical, and typical life expectancy factors apply.
When inspecting wire cables and their associated fittings, it is important to look for signs of corrosion, rust or pitting. Due to the natural flow of water down the wire, the lower terminals tend to exhibit these signs before the wire itself. Water and debris can collect in these fittings and generate corrosion from the inside, thus compromising the wire captured within the fitting or the fitting itself.
Both rotary and roll swaging are strong and efficient forms of termination utilizing a machine that compresses the fitting sleeve on the wire. Roll swaging, when done properly, leaves two «flash» lines on opposite sides of the fitting sleeve. These lines appear as raised ridges with rounded edges and are typical of this technique.
Occasionally terminals will be rolled several times in order to reduce the «flash» lines. This situation hardens the terminal and creates the possibility of cracking because of over-hardening. It can also be the source of crevice corrosion because of the creation of microscopic folds in the steel and can be a source of staining on the wire or terminal.
When monitoring swage fittings, pay careful attention to the inside edge where the wire exits. If there is any evidence of cracking, it is an indication of interior crevice corrosion. Depending on the method in which the wire was prepared prior to the swage being done and what predominant environmental conditions the boat has seen, these cracks could appear in as general rule, we recommend little as 1-2 years.
We recommend careful inspection visually or with a die penetrate test to insure the safe and prolonged use of swage terminations.
Norseman Swageless terminals are manufactured with 316 Stainless Steel and generally have a life span greater then the wire they are terminating. This lifespan can last through a wire re-rig, but we recommend the replacement of the internal cone with each inspection. It is also important to carefully inspect the socket internally for signs of wear, and any sign of cracks would require replacement of the whole assembly.
We recommend careful visual inspection to insure the safe and prolonged use of swageless terminations.
Wire inspection can be done visually and should include a close inspection for corrosion, pitting, discolored strands and cracks at fitting exit points. Rust on the wire generally comes from the fitting and bleeds down the individual strands of the wire. This phenomenon is called «rougening». Pay close attention to wire exit points from all terminals as broken strands or «metal hooks» are a sure sign of fatigue failure. We recommend replacement of the wire if any broken strands are found.
Wire life expectancy
There are many variables to consider when it comes to the longevity of the wire rigging being used with todays modern mast systems.
The most prominent factors are:
How environmental conditions can affect the rigging
A major consideration in the longevity of the rigging system is the environmental conditions the yacht is subjected to. If the yacht spends most of its time in an environment with substantial air polution, contaminants in the air will generally shorten the mast systems life span, and frequent cleansing and inspection routine (Level A – see Inspection Tables ) should be a part of your regular schedule.
Monitor those T-hooks
one popular fitting that requires more diligent survey and potential replacment is the T-hook. Due to its design, it is typically one of the few fittings with a life expectancy dramatically less than the rod or wire. When inspecting the T-hook, look for cracks on the iside of the sharp bend, as this is a typical spot for fatigue cracking. T-hooks must be diligently monitored and depending on the application should be replaced approximately once per year depending on usage, mileage and sailing conditions.
We estimate a life expectancy schedule based on climate variables and water salinity:
There are many variables to consider when it comes to the longevity of the rod rigging being used with todays modern mast systems. The most prominent factors are:
The amount of time and/or miles the yacht has been in service
Osnovno as a general rule, complete Level C inspection for Category I and II boats ( see Inspection Tables ), of mast and rigging systems after a maximum of 40000-60000 sailing miles or 6 years, whichever comes first. The comprehensive maintenance schedule would include inspection of all the rod heads and end fittings. If any of the heads are cracked or worn, the rod must be re-headed.
This doesn’t mean that the complete rod section must be replaced, that would depend on whether the turnbuckles had enough stroke to compensate for a shorter section of rod.
At the same time the rod is re-headed, replacing the turnbuckle screw is recommended.The screws could last for many additional years, but it is less expensive to replace a few rigging screws than to replace the mast and all of the rigging.
One other rigging fatigue scenario to be aware of is winter storage with the mast system in place. This storage option causes cycling loads (the wind «whistling in the rigging»), which is frequently overlooked because the yacht isn’t in service.
What loads are put on the rod in comparaison to its breaking strength
Racing yachts generally use minimum rod sizes to keep rigging weight and windage as low as possible. As a result of cost constraints, this sizing issue can also be encountered with the rigging of production built cruising boats.
Using a smaller rod size tends to shorten its working life, as maximum sailing loads may approach or exceed 50% of the breaking strength of the rod. Larger custom cruising yachts tend to have a higher safety factor because the chosen rod sizes are typically more conservative, so the rigging loads would only be 15-25% of breaking strength during maximum sailing conditions.
Smaller rod sizes for a given application tend to yield shorter rod life, as the overall safety factors for that application are reduced.
The yachts predominant sailing condition
If the yacht is predominantly sailed in heavy air conditions, the life of the rod will be shorter than if the boat was sailed infrequently or in lighter wind conditions. The higher the rigging is stressed on a regular basis, the shorter its life span will be.
The amount of care and maintenance given to the rigging
If the rigging has been periodically checked, the end fittings rinsed with fresh water, and general care and maintenance have been employed, it will last longer.
How environmental conditions can affect the rigging
A major consideration in the longevity of the rigging system is the environmental conditions the yacht is subjected to. If the yacht spends most of its time in an environment with substantial air pollution, contaminants in the air will generally shorten the mast systems life span, and frequent cleansing and inspection routine (Level A – see Inspection Tables ) should be a part of your regular schedule.
Routine inspections with no rod problems
After a thorough inspection (Level C: 40000-60000 miles or 6 years – see Inspection Tables) with no evidence of damage, it may be reasonable to expect the rod to last an additional 20000-30000 miles. However, rod re-healing is recommended, and this is when a maintenance and inspection schedule becomes of paramount importance.
Monitor those T-hooks
One popular fitting that requires more diligent survey and potential replacement is the T-hook. Due to its design, it is typically one of the few fittings with a life expectancy dramatically less than the rod or wire. When inspecting the T-hook, look for cracks on the iside of the sharp bend, as this is a typical spot for fatigue cracking. T-hooks must be diligently monitored and depending on the application should be replaced approximately once per year depending on usage, mileage and sailing conditions.
What to look for when inspecting rod rigging
Cracks in rigging components, especially cracks that are orientated transverse to the load, are sign of impending failure. Cracks can be found using visual inspection, a magnifier, or by dye penetrate testing. This techniques are recommended, but other professional testing techniques available are X-ray testing, eddy current testing and ultrasonic testing, which allows you to inspect rod heads for transverse cracks in closed fittings.
For visual inspection, the rod or fittings must be cleaned or polished to expose the cracks. Rusty areas frequently indicate cracks underneath. In addition to cracks, you should look for corrosion, pitting, black streaks, rust and visible wear. Any areas showing discoloration or potential corrosion should be thoroughly cleaned and inspected. If any evidence of pitting, corrosion or wear remains after this cleaning, please consult us.
Pitting, corrosion or visible wear could require re-heading, replacement of the rod or replacement of associated fittings.
Proper alignment to the load is also very important to generate a good working life for any rigging. Misalignment of fittings, caused by intereference or bends, should be checked. Kinks or bends in rod rigging result in increased local stress and can dramatically reduce its life. If a fitting or rod has operated in a bent, kinked or misaligned condition, is recommended to replace it, as a damage due to cycling cannot be easily evaluated. If a rod is bent and then straightened before further service, depending on the severity of the bend, it could be used again to provide a normal working life. This is a judgment call, and you should consult us considering this issue.
One of the main differences between rod, wire and fiber rigging (Kavlar, PBO), is the fiber cables susceptibility to damage from environmental conditions. Throughout its life, a section of rod may encounter a wide variety of conditions that really have no effect on its integrity, yet these same conditions could prove detrimental to the life expectancy of fiber cable.
UV and the elements
One example of a damaging situation is a iib sheet or halyard running over a fiber cable. The chafe from this sheet would have no detrimental effect on a section of rod, but could easily wear through the external jacket or internal core fibers. In this case, the fiber is now exposed directly to the elements and can begin to degrade due to exposure to UV light and moisture. Any exposure to either visible or ultraviolet light can cause property degradation, loss in strenght and potential failure of the fibers. Also, high relative humidity at elevated temperatures can cause a loss in fiber strenght oer time. These conditions are common, therefore it is very important to inspect fiber rigging on a regular basis for any damage to the protective jacket, which may expose core fibers.
Inspection of fiber cables is critical for the safe and prolonged use of the cable rigging system. Routine visual inspection of the jacket and its termination points should be frequently carried out in order to maximize the working life of the cable. On passages or during regattas this state-of-the-art rigging technology should be inspected daily.
PBO Cable Life Expectancy
Based on experience, a PBO cable that has been inspected regularly with no signs of damage can expect following life expectancy depending on the application in which it was used:
Kevlar cable life expectancy
Based on experience, a Kevlar cable that has been inspected regulary with no signs of damage can expected the following life expectancy: If the maximum working load is less than 40% of the cables rated strenght, we recommend changing the cableas following – 26000-30000 miles or 4 to 6 years of use, whichever comes first.